References: Using Sources 1

Because quotations are rare in scientific writing, writers usually rely on restating source material in their own words as a summary or a paraphrase. Included source material should be as concise as possible1.

Summarising and paraphrasing enable the writer to accurately and concisely restate source material in their own words. An accurate summary or paraphrase requires a solid understanding of the original source material.

Paraphrases are useful for clarifying a single complex statement or concept, or when the particular logic or order of the source material is important to your argument. To paraphrase:

Sometimes a paraphrase is longer than the original sentence/s.

While technical/scientific terms should not be altered, a paraphrase will need to utilise synonymous words/phrases and/or different word formations. Roll the cursor over the highlighted words in the original text to see these structures in the paraphrase.

Often the choice of synonym or new word form will alter the sentence structure; such as, changing a verb to a noun (produce/by product), or choosing a group of words that requires a different grammar to the original.

1. Harvey, G. (1998). Writing with Sources; a Guide for Students. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.

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