Reference Conventions: In-text System: Examples

Number/type of author Example
One author (Pettersson, 1995) or Pettersson (1995) demonstrated…
Two authors (Goold and Baines, 1995) or Goold and Baines’ (1995) study of …
Three authors (Smith, Adams and Jones, 1998) …
Four or more authors

(Lawrence et al., 1995) or Lawrence et al. (1985) found … et al., is a Latin phrase = and others

NOTE: In the reference list you must include ALL the authors. DO NOT use et al. in the list of references.

The author is an organisation (Perilya Ltd, 2006)
Personal communication
(e.g. a meeting, an interview, an on-site presentation, a conversation, an email) First, gain permission to include the source in your report.
Mr G Andrews (2006, pers. comm. 27 July) explained the stope preparation at….
Stope preparation at Southern Operations is …..(G Andrews, 2006, pers. comm. 27 July).
A number of authors from different sources
(Use semi colons between each source and sequence sources chronologically).
Various studies (Wilson, 1970; Smith and Adams, 1975; Brown et al., 1985) have shown…
Two or more publications by the same author in the same year.
(Use lowercase letters after the year; a, b, c, to identify each publication)
Wilson (2009a) analysed ….
Wilson (2009b) reported ….
It has been shown (Wilson, 2009a, Wilson, 2009b)….

Learning reference conventions can initially be confusing and time consuming. Always refer to a style guide as you format your references. With practice, referencing will become second nature. For more examples of in-text references in Harvard style see the following style guides:

Remember to be consistent and to apply one style to the text.

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